The majority of the people were fervent royalists but were divided into two groups: those who favored the status quo and the divine right of Ferdinand VII (known as absolutists) and those who wanted to proclaim Charlotte Joaquina as Queen (known as carlotists). As a result, in 1813, he sent a military expedition by sea under the command of Antonio Pareja to deal with the situation in Chile, and sent another force by land to attack northern Argentina. Governor Guzmán had suddenly died in February of that year and the crown had not been able to appoint a new governor before the invasion. Chile Independence Day commemorates the country’s culture and independence. These groups were all decidedly against independence from Spain and differentiated themselves only in the degree of political autonomy that they sought. Nonetheless, the mutiny also encouraged a radicalization of political postures. In Chile the initial move toward independence was made on September 18, 1810, when a cabildo abierto (open town meeting) in Santiago, attended by representatives of privileged groups whose vaguely defined objectives included a change in administration, accepted the resignation of the President-Governor and in his place elected a junta composed of local leaders. Additionally, Carrera was responsible for bringing the first American consul to Chile. Independence did not have unanimous support among Chileans, who were divided between independentists and royalists. At the start of 1808, the Captaincy General of Chile – one of the smallest and poorest colonies in the Spanish Empire – was under the administration of Luis Muñoz de Guzmán, an able, respected and well-liked Royal Governor. Both of these prestigious institutions have survived to the present day. Trade with Peru did not fully recover after the independence struggles. Independence Celebrations Every year, on September 18 th, Chile celebrates Independence with a bang to commemorate the beginning of the independence process from the Spanish Crown. Today, Chileans celebrate Independence Day as one of the most important holidays. Chile's health minister has urged Chileans to celebrate the country's independence day holiday on Friday "prudently" amid fears that a special permit allowing people to hold and attend family gatherings could result in a spike in coronavirus cases. Upon the arrival of the exiles, San Martín immediately began to favor O'Higgins (probably because of their shared membership in the Logia Lautaro, a pro-independence secret society).Carrera's influence begun to fade and ended finally when he was executed by firing squad in 1821. Meanwhile, a provisional Constitution of 1812 was promulgated with a marked liberal character. Pareja then attempted to take Santiago. It’s economy is the jewel of Latin America and stands as quite a contrast to Venezuela and Cuba. In May 1808 the overthrow of Charles IV and Ferdinand VII, their replacement by Joseph Bonaparte and the start of the Peninsular War plunged the empire into a state of agitation. A declaration of independence was officially issued by Chile on February 12, 1818 and formally recognized by Spain in 1844, when full diplomatic relations were established.[1]. Commonly known as “el dieciocho” (because of the date), most of the celebrations take place around the 18 th and 19 th, but the festivities can last up to a week. The mutiny was successful in that temporarily sabotaged the elections, which had to be delayed. The United States stands with Chile as our countries respond to the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. This includes parades, dances, drinking, eating traditional Chilean food, and … It’s their national holiday and is right up there with Christmas in … During this time, a well-connected young man and a veteran of the Peninsular War, José Miguel Carrera, returned to Chile from Spain. Trade was disrupted and armies in Chile pillaged the countryside. This date is now recognized as Chile’s Independence Day.” From the website of the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames: In June 1810 news arrived from Buenos Aires that Napoleon Bonaparte's forces had conquered Andalusia and laid siege to Cádiz, the last redoubt against the French on Spanish soil. From that moment on the pressure for his removal began to build. Brigadier García Carrasco was suspended from office and forced to resign on July 16, 1810, to be in turn replaced by the next most senior soldier, Mateo de Toro Zambrano Count of la Conquista, even though a legitimate Governor, Francisco Javier de Elío, had already been appointed by the Viceroy of Peru. September 17, 2020 On behalf of the Government of the United States and the American people, I congratulate the people of Chile on the occasion of the 210th anniversary of your independence. The United States stands with Chile as our countries respond to … [3], The Chilean ruling elite adopted a free trade policy already in 1811 with the "Decreto de Libre Comercio". Our friends down in Chile will enjoy another anniversary of their independence in 1810. September 17, 2020 On behalf of the Government of the United States and the American people, I congratulate the people of Chile on the occasion of the 210th anniversary of your independence. Chile’s declaration of independence led to over a decade of violence that eventually ended in 1826. Our close partnership is built on our longstanding economic, security, scientific, and people-to-people cooperation as well as a shared commitment to democratic values, rule of law, and building a better future for both our nations. Harassed on all sides, Carrera resigned, in what is commonly taken to mark the beginning of the period of the Reconquista. 15-08-2019. This election was supposed to take place on April 10, but before they could be called the Figueroa mutiny broke out. [2] Being isolated from Central Chile by hostile Mapuche-controlled territory and dependent upon seaborne trade with the port of Callao in Peru the city of Valdivia was particularly badly hit by the decline of the trade with Peru. Traditionally, the beginning of the war is dated as September 18, 1810. National Day is a public holiday. As San Martín worked to establish internal stability, O'Higgins also looked to defend the country against further external threats by the Spanish and continue to roll back imperial control. Meanwhile, Bernardo O'Higgins moved north to somehow stop the advance of the royalists. ¡junta queremos!" This declaration eventually led to over a decade of violence and warring which did not end until the last royalist stronghold fell in 1826. Symbolic figures or objects, such as past heroes, represent the message and motive of the occasion (Dorson 1982). While Chileans celebrate their independence on September 18th, their declaration in 1810 was the start of a long struggle and the Chilean war of Independence lasted for eight years before Chile could officially proclaim independence on February 12th 1818. To further secure Chilean independence, San Martín launched a series of actions against armed bands in the mountains, consisting of assorted outlaws, royalists, and Indians who had taken advantage of the chaos of military expeditions and forced recruitments to pillage and sack the countryside. Immediately, political intrigue began amongst the ruling elite, with news of the political turbulence and wars of Europe all the while coming in. The troops landed in Concepción, where they were received with applause. In one of his more celebrated actions, he disguised himself as a beggar and succeeded in obtaining alms from Governor Marcó del Pont himself, who by that time had put a price on Rodríguez's head. On the first anniversary of the Battle of Chacabuco, O'Higgins formally declared independence. From the very beginning, the juntistas took the political initiative. Chile was a small, isolated part of the Spanish Empire. However, Chile goes a few steps further. Chile officially proclaimed independence February 12, 1818. As a result, the patriots re-entered Santiago. Chile’s Independence Day On behalf of the Government of the United States and the American people, I congratulate the people of Chile on the occasion of the 210th anniversary of your independence. The Chilean Declaration of Independence is a document declaring the independence of Chile from the Spanish Empire. Independence Day Like many other countries, Chile’s declaration of independence led to years of war, until true independence was achieved on 12 February 1818. The Real Audiencia of Chile, a long-standing pillar of Spanish rule, was dissolved for its alleged "complicity" with the mutiny. Pincheira brothers) occur until the late 1820s. It was drafted in January 1818 and approved by Supreme Director Bernardo O'Higgins on 12 February 1818 at Talca, despite being dated in Concepción on 1 January 1818. At the time, the governor of this province was José de San Martín, a leader of the Argentine independence movement who would become regarded as the "Simón Bolívar" of the southern part of Spanish South America. … The royalist force landed and moved to Chillán, demanding complete surrender. Chile Independence Day: A quick guide September 18th is a crucial date on the Chilean calendar. Chile has another reason to celebrate today. Chile (about this soundtrack)), Spanish: Officially the Republic of Chile (Spanish: a country in western South America about the sound. Also during his government, the first Chilean newspaper, the La Aurora de Chile was published under the editorship of Friar Camilo Henríquez. On April 1, Royalist colonel Tomás de Figueroa—considering the notion of elections to be too populist—led a revolt in Santiago. Through his subsequent daring exploits, Rodríguez became a romantic hero of the revolution. In any case, San Martín and O'Higgins were in agreement that the danger would not be passed until the Viceroyalty of Peru itself was independent from Spain. Their path to independence from Spain began on September 18th of 1810. A third group was composed of those who proposed the replacement of the Spanish authorities with a local junta of notable citizens, which would conform a provisional government to rule in the absence of the king and an independent Spain (known as juntistas). Is National Day a Public Holiday? Chile's Independence Day is an important day in which the people of Chile can come together and have a new sense of unity and purpose (Hudson 1994: 133). However, the last Spanish territory in Chile, the archipelago of Chiloé, was not conquered until 1826, during the government of Ramón Freire, O'Higgins' successor. Because of the disagreements and resulting lack of coordination, the independence forces were divided, and O'Higgins was obliged to meet the royalists at Rancagua without reinforcements. Their leader was Juan Martínez de Rozas. Then, on April 5, 1818, San Martín inflicted a decisive defeat on Osorio the Battle of Maipú, after which the depleted royalists retreated to Concepcion, never again to launch a major offensive against Santiago. An official website of the United States government, Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization, Office of the U.S. Depending on what terms are used to define its end, it lasted until 1821, when royalist forces were defeated by José de San Martín; or until 1826, when the last Spanish troops surrendered and the Chiloé Archipelago was incorporated to the Chilean republic. The goals of the campaign were to keep the Spanish forces off balance, ridicule San Bruno, and generally bolster the morale of the patriots. The resulting Battle of Chacabuco, on February 12, 1817, was a decisive victory for the independence forces. The Chilean War of Independence was a war between pro-independence Chilean Criollo peoples seeking political and economic independence from Spain and royalist creoles supporting continued allegiance to the Captaincy General of Chile and membership of the Spanish Empire. They resented the illegal arrests and, together with the news that Cádiz was all that was left of a free Spain, finally solidified in their opposition to the Governor. Among those arrested were José Antonio de Rojas, Juan Antonio Ovalle and Bernardo de Vera y Pintado. Technically the independence celebration is September 18, also known as the Dieciocho—which means 18 in Spanish.However, Chileans don't just celebrate on one day— Fiestas Patrias festivities usually begin one week before September 18th. Chile had to fight for eight more years to earn their total freedom. For the film by Patricio Guzman, see, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Iberian Peninsula and South America (1762–63), Banda Oriental and Rio Grande do Sul (1762–63), "Los industriales alemanes de Valdivia, 1850-1914", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Chilean_War_of_Independence&oldid=987369383, Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Articles lacking in-text citations from October 2009, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2009, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Interaction with Sri Sri Ravi Shankar. Although Moderates—who continued advocating political control of the elites and greater autonomy without a complete rupture from Spain—gained the majority of seats, a vocal minority was formed by Extremist revolutionaries who now wanted complete and instant independence from Spain. After two coups, both in the end of 1811, the ambitious Carrera managed to take power, inaugurating a dictatorship. This failed attempt ended in the minor but significant Battle of Agüi. The day is normally marked by exuberant communal fairs to which Chileans flock in large numbers to watch horseback displays and traditional … The Junta then proceeded to take some concrete measures that had been long-held aspirations of the colonials: it created a militia for the defense of the kingdom, decreed freedom of trade with all nations that were allied to Spain or neutrals, a unique tariff of 134% for all imports (with the exception of printing presses, books and guns which were liberated from all taxes) and in order to increase its representativity, ordered the convocatory of a National Congress. Spanish Rule. As soon as the Cabildo was called, they were able to place their members in the committee charged with sending the invitations, thus manipulating the attendance lists to their own advantage. He resolved to recall his son-in-law, Mariano Osorio, sending him south with another expeditionary force. In short, Chile is growing and attracting investors. We want a junta!"). Huge parades, the complete shut down of the country and a lot of flags. Mexico's Independence Day: September 16. After a difficult crossing the Andes, royalist forces led by Rafael Maroto were encountered on the plain of Chacabuco, to the north of Santiago. The following day, September 16, is Mexico's Independence Day, while Chile celebrates their independence on September 18, and Belize on September 21. However, the audacious and daring character of Cochrane conflicted with the excessive prudence of San Martín. García Carrasco, who was a supporter of the carlotist group, managed to magnify the political problems by taking arbitrary and harsh measures, such as the arrest and deportation to Lima without due process of well-known and socially prominent citizens under simple suspicions of having been sympathetic to the junta idea. September brings spring to Chile and with it the days of celebration of Chile's independence from Spain. Count Toro Zambrano was, by all standards, a very unorthodox selection. The patriots found in Santiago—among whom were members of the First Junta—were exiled to the Juan Fernández Islands. In any case, the Spanish believed that it was necessary to teach the revolutionaries a good lesson and embarked on a campaign of fierce political persecution, led by the infamous Vicente San Bruno. In August the Royal Appeals Court (Spanish: Real Audiencia) took a public loyalty oath to the Regency Council in front of a massive audience, which put added pressure on the Governor to define himself. Inspired by the May Revolution in Argentina, the autonomy movement had also propagated through the criollo elite. [5][6], "Battle of Chile" redirects here. O'Higgins wanted to defend the city of Rancagua, while Carrera wanted to make the stand at the pass of Angostura, a more felicitous defensive position but also closer to Santiago. A little while later, Osorio entered Santiago and put the rebellion of the Patria Vieja to an end. The revolt sputtered, and Figueroa was arrested and summarily executed. From its historic beginnings to the colors of the Mexican flag, Chile en Nogada has all the ingredients needed to … Independence Day – September 18th Chileans celebrate their independence on the 18th of September. It was eventually decided that elections for the National Congress, to be composed of 42 representatives, would be held in 1811. In 1820, Cochrane administered a stunning blow to the remaining royalist forces in a successful attack on a complex of fortifications at Valdivia. The great political surprise up to that point had been the results from the other center of power, Concepción, in which Royalists had defeated the supporters of Juan Martínez de Rozas. Simon Bolivar and the Battle of Boyaca. After vacillating for some time over which party to follow, Toro Zambrano finally agreed to hold an open Cabildo (city hall) meeting in Santiago to discuss the issue. On behalf of the Government of the United States and the American people, I congratulate the people of Chile on the occasion of the 210th anniversary of your independence. The viceroy Abascal confirmed Mariano Osorio as governor of Chile, although a later disagreement between the two would result in Osorio's removal and the installation of Francisco Casimiro Marcó del Pont as governor in 1815. Coordinator for the Arctic Region, Bureaus and Offices Reporting Directly to the Secretary, Office of the Coordinator for Cyber Issues, Office of the U.S. "Liberators: Latin America`s Struggle For Independence, 1810-1830". San Martín let escape a number of opportunities to land the decisive blow against the viceroy,[citation needed] and in the end it was Simón Bolívar who launched the final offensive after coming down from Colombia, Peruvian independence was secured after the Battle of Ayacucho on December 9, 1824, in which forces led by Antonio José de Sucre—a lieutenant of Bolívar—defeated the royalist army for good. The ceremony of independence was performed on 12 February 1818, the first anniversary of the Battle of Chacabuco. The Government Junta of the Kingdom of Chile, also known as the First Junta, was organized with the same powers as a Royal Governor. It is a day off for the general population, and schools and most businesses are closed. This effort failed, as did a subsequent inconclusive assault led by Gabino Gaínza. The latter option was tried on September 18, 1810, a date whose anniversary is celebrated as Chile's independence day. The Royalists were against any reform at all and for the maintenance of the status quo. He was a very old man already (82 years old at the time) and moreover a "criollo" (someone born in the colonies) as opposed to a "peninsular" (someone born in Spain). He developed the Chilean navy as a line of defense against seaborne attacks, placing the Scotsman Lord Cochrane in the post of admiral. Chile covers an area of 756,096 square kilometers (291,930 square miles) and has a total population of 17.5 million as of 2017. In the confusion, a false rumor spread that San Martin and O'Higgins had died, and a panic seized the patriot troops, many of whom agitated for a full retreat back across the Andes to Mendoza. The idea of full independence gained momentum for the first time. However some believe that the "Patria Nueva" is a never-ending movement and that it continues to prevail in Chilean nationalistic ideas today. Since her father and brother were being held prisoners in France, she regarded herself as the heiress of her captured family. What started as a political movement among elites against the colonial power, ended as a full-fledged civil war. On that day, the criollo leaders of Santiago , employing the town council as a junta, announced their intention to govern the colony until the king was reinstated. After the attempt by Gaínza, the two sides had signed the Treaty of Lircay on May 14, nominally bringing peace but effectively only providing a breathing space. Independence Day in Chile Date in the current year: September 18, 2020 The Chilean people celebrate Independence Day, one of the national holidays, on September 18.Celebration of this holiday opens a series of festive events, that are awaited by children and adults, because many schools and companies have a week-long holiday. Independence Day is on the 261th day of 2021. In the meantime, Charlotte Joaquina, sister of Ferdinand and wife of the King of Portugal, who was living in Brazil, also made attempts to obtain the administration of the Spanish dominions in Latin America. The Moderates, under the leadership of José Miguel Infante, were a majority, and wanted a very slow pace of reforms since they were afraid that once the King was back in power he would think that they were seeking independence and would roll-back all changes. In 2021, it falls on a Saturday, and some businesses may choose to follow Saturday opening hours. 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